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Electromagnetic radiation, particularly its emission and absorption by substances, can be employed in many ways by the chemist to elucidate the structure of compounds, confirm the identity of compounds and to quantitatively estimate the amount of a specific compound present in a sample. In fact, without the use of such techniques, the development of chemistry would, over the years, have been seriously hindered.
Electromagnetic waves are employed in a number of different ways by the chemist depending on the wavelength or frequency of the radiation and the specific information that is required. From the point of view of the chemist, the useful range of wavelengths extend from short wavelengths of less than a 100 pm to radio wavelengths of 100 cm to 10m. The application areas of the different wavelength ranges are shown diagrammatically in figure 1, (vis. λ = 100pm to 10nm, change in nuclear configurations; λ = 10nm to 1μm, change in electron configuration ultra violet and visible spectroscopy (UV/vis.); λ = 1μm to 100μm; change in molecular configuration, infrared spectroscopy (IR); λ = 100μm to 1cm; microwave spectroscopy; lγ = 1cm to 100cm, and λ = 100cm 10m, (electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), change of electron an nuclear spin.
Some of the techniques shown in figure 1 are more often employed exclusively by spectroscopists whereas others (namely UV/vis, infrared, Raman, and NMR) are used by general chemists and analytical chemists without the need for extensive training in spectroscopy. It is the latter techniques that will be considered and discussed in the books of this series and in this book infrared spectroscopy will be considered in detail.
About the Author
RAYMOND PETER WILLIAM SCOTT was born on June 20 1924 in Erith, Kent, UK. He studied at the University of London, obtaining his B.Sc. degree in 1946 and his D.Sc. degree in 1960. After spending more than a decade at Benzole Producers, Ltd. Where he became head of the Physical Chemistry Laboratory, he moved to Unilever Research Laboratories as Manager of their Physical Chemistry department. In 1969 he became Director of Physical Chemistry at Hoffmann-La Roche, Nutley, NJ, U.S.A. and subsequently accepted the position of Director of the Applied Research Department at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Norwalk, CT, U.S.A.
In 1986 he became an independent consultant and was appointed Visiting Professor at Georgetown
University, Washington, DC, U.S.A. and at Berkbeck College of the University of London; in 1986 he retired but continues to write technical books dealing with various aspects of physical chemistry and physical chemical techniques. Dr. Scott has authored or co-authored over 200 peer reviewed scientific papers and authored, co-authored or edited over thirty books on various aspects of physical and analytical chemistry. Dr. Scott was a founding member of the British chromatography Society and received the American Chemical society Award in chromatography (1977), the M. S. Tswett chromatography Medal (1978), the Tswett chromatography Medal U.S.S.R., (1979), the A. J. P. Martin chromatography Award (1982) and the Royal Society of Chemistry Award in Analysis and Instrumentation (1988).
Dr. Scott’s activities in gas chromatography started at the inception of the technique, inventing the Heat of Combustion Detector (the precursor of the Flame Ionization Detector), pioneered work on high sensitivity detectors, high efficiency columns and presented fundamental treatments of the relationship between the theory and practice of the technique. He established the viability of the moving bed continuous preparative gas chromatography, examined both theoretically and experimentally those factors that controlled dispersion in packed beds and helped establish the gas chromatograph as a process monitoring instrument. Dr. Scott took and active part in the renaissance of liquid chromatography, was involved in the development of high performance liquid chromatography and invented the wire transport detector. He invented the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry transport interface, introduced micro-bore liquid chromatography columns and used them to provide columns of 750,000 theoretical plates and liquid chromatography separations in less than a second. Dr. Scott has always been a “hands-on” scientist with a remarkable record of accomplishments in chromatography ranging from hardware design to the development of fundamental theory. He has never shied away from questioning “conventional wisdom” and his original approach to problems has often produced significant breakthroughs.